System Requirements Wording

Usually I receive from my students (especially during thesis supervision) the question if there is a standard way to describe the wording of a system requirements.
An interesting approach to this is IETF RFC 2119, which defines the key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL”

1. MUST This word, or the terms “REQUIRED” or “SHALL”, mean that the definition is an absolute requirement of the specification.

2. MUST NOT This phrase, or the phrase “SHALL NOT”, mean that the definition is an absolute prohibition of the specification.

3. SHOULD This word, or the adjective “RECOMMENDED”, mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore a particular item, but the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed before choosing a different course.

4. SHOULD NOT This phrase, or the phrase “NOT RECOMMENDED” mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances when the particular behavior is acceptable or even useful, but the full implications should be understood and the case carefully weighed before implementing any behavior described with this label.

5. MAY This word, or the adjective “OPTIONAL”, mean that an item is truly optional. One vendor may choose to include the item because a particular marketplace requires it or because the vendor feels that it enhances the product while another vendor may omit the same item.

For more info please refer to the RFC here


IEEE comm magazine – QoE management in emerging multimedia services

IEEE Communications Magazine

Feature topic on “QoE management in emerging multimedia services”


FINAL MANUSCRIPT: March 10, 2012


The realization of the paradigm of Internet anywhere, anytime and any-device and the diffusion of end-user multimedia devices with powerful and user-friendly capabilities such as smartphones, tablets pc, mobile gaming terminals and ebooks, are leading to the proliferation of a significant amount of emerging multimedia services: immersive environments, mobile online gaming, 3D virtual world, book/newspaper consumption, social networking, IPTV applications, just to cite a few. Some of these services have already reached a major market success, such as the case of newspaper/magazine mobile readers and smartphone multimedia apps. Their success could be achieved especially because a user-centered approach has been followed to design the whole process of content production, service activation, content consumption, service management and updating. Indeed, the quality of the user experience, the perceived simplicity of accessing and interacting with systems and services, and the effective and acceptable
hiding of the complexity of underlying technologies are determining factors for success or failure of these novel services, as well as graceful degradation. The management of the Quality of Experience (QoE) is then undoubtedly a crucial concept in the deployment of future successful services, and it is straightforward to be understood as well complex and stimulating to be implemented in real systems. The complexity is mainly due to the difficulty of its modeling, evaluation, and translation in what for more than a decade we have been mainly dealing with (partially in its substitution), that is the Quality of Services (QoS). Whereas QoS can be now easily measured, monitored and controlled at both the networking and application layers and
at the end-system and network sides, the quality of experience is something that is still quite intricate to be managed. The practice in evaluating the QoS can be exploited in evaluating the QoE, but it is just a starting point for a complete QoE management procedure, which should encompass at least the following activities: monitoring of the experience of the user when consuming the service, adapting the provisioning of the content on the basis of the varying context conditions (e.g. network status, user behavior, user
profile, environment), predicting potential experience level degradation, and masking quality degradation due to abrupt system changes. To have a complete control of the final user experience, all these tasks need to be performed in a coordinated way and their real effectiveness depends on the validity of the adopted user perception model.

Objectives The purpose of this special issue is to present to the magazine’s audience a concise, tutorial oriented reference of the state-of-the-art, current and future research challenges and trends on the management of QoE in emerging multimedia services. To achieve this goal the special issue seeks original research and review papers that survey and present new ideas, leading-edge research prototype development, trials and early deployment, and performance evaluations in the following areas: * Definition of QoE (Quality of Experience) for emerging services * Relationship between QoE and QoS
* Architectures for the management of the QoE in emerging multimedia services
* Offline and online prediction and evaluation of QoE * QoE-oriented multimedia traffic management * QoE-oriented multimedia source and channel coding * Testbeds for performance evaluation of QoE-oriented systems
* Middleware solutions for QoE management * Adaptive and self-configuring solutions for QoE management * Advanced, scalable service-aware QoE-oriented traffic control and management
* QoE management in heterogeneous networks

Prospective authors should follow the IEEE Communications Magazine manuscript format described in the Authors Guidelines
( All articles to be considered for publication must be submitted through the IEEE Manuscript Central ( Guest Editors:
* Luigi Atzori, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Italy
* Chang Wen Chen, Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo, NJ, USA
* Tasos Dagiuklas, Technological Educational Institute of Mesolonghi, Greece * Hong Ren Wu, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia

Deadline extension to January 30: NexComm 2010 June 13-19, 2010 – Athens, Greece

NexComm 2010, June 13-19, 2010 – Athens, Greece


NexComm 2010 is a federated event focusing on advances topics concerning digital communications, space communications, and multimedia. WebTel 2010 continues the tradition of well-established conferences [CTRQ and ICDT] along with newer conferences [SPACOMM, MMEDIA, and MOPAS].

Submission (full paper) new deadline: January 30, 2010.

Sponsored by IARIA,

Extended versions of selected papers will be published in IARIA Journals:

Publisher: CPS ( see: )

Archived: IEEE CSDL (Computer Science Digital Library) and IEEE Xplore

Submitted for indexing: Elsevier’s EI Compendex Database, EI’s Engineering Information Index

Other indexes are being considered: INSPEC, DBLP, Thomson Reuters Conference Proceedings Citation Index

Submissions must be electronically done using the ‘Submit a Paper’ link on the entry page of each conference.

Before submission, please check and conform with the Editorial rules:

For details on the each conference’s topics, see the individual Call for Papers for each conference.

Unpublished high quality contributions in terms of Regular papers and Posters or Work in Progress are welcome. Workshop proposals and Panel proposals on challenging topics are encouraged.

All tracks/topics are open to both research and industry contributions.